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Friedrich Froebel time line

21 June 1852, Marienthal

at half past six in the evening Friedrich Froebel after a short illness departed this life.

back to life of Friedrich Froebel


Charles Dickens visited a Kindergarten in London and after observing the children wrote: "By cutting paper, patterns are produced in the Infant Garden that would often, though the work of very little hands, be received in schools of design with acclamation."


The first American kindergarten was established at Watertown. Margarethe Schurz brought the concept of kingergarten with her from Germany. Margarethe employed Froebel's philosophy while caring for her daughter, Agathe, and four neighbor children, leading them in games and songs and group activities that channeled their energy while preparing them for school. Other parents were so impressed at the results that they prevailed upon Schurz to help their children, so she opened a small kindergarten, the first in the United States.


American educator Elizabeth Palmer Peabody opened one of the first kindergartens in the United States in Boston.


The Grand Duchess Helene, a princess memorable for her intellectual gifts, arranges for three Russian women to be trained in the Froebel Method in Berlin. In 1866 there was a Kindergarten in Odessa.


Milton Bradley published America's first book on kindergarten, Paradise of Childhood, by Friedrich Froebel. Bradley's interest in childhood and children's education continued. In addition to selling the Froebel gifts he printed a series of kindergarten manuals, newsletters, and children's books.


Baroness von Marenholtz-Buelow arrived in Florence to start a Kindergarten and teacher training school, that became a model of Froebelian purity.


Froebel's former student, Henriette Schrader-Breymann (1827-1896), founded a kindergarten training institution, the Pestalozzi-Fröbel Haus, in Berlin.

Applying Friedrich Froebel's theories, Susan Blow opened the United States' first successful public kindergarten at St. Louis' Des Peres School. Blow taught children in the morning and teachers in the afternoon. By 1883 every St. Louis public school had a kindergarten, making the city a model for the nation.

Froebel Society founded in Manchester, England


A Froebel Society was founded in London to promote kindergarten education and the Education Institute followed in 1892. Records relating to the Society including material on child development and infant education are held at The Froebel Archive for Childhood Studies


Philadelphia Centennial, Frank Lloyd Wright's mother attends and purchases Froebel materials for her son.

Tokyo, first Japanese kindergarten


In Russia there are kindergartens in St Petersburg (also a Froebel Society and teacher training college), Moscow, Kiev, Omsk, Riga and Dorpat.


St. Louis - Every public school had a kindergarten, making the city a model for the nation.

Toronto - Through the efforts of Dr. James L. Hughes and his wife, Ada Marean Hughes, the Froebel kindergarten was introduced into the Toronto public schools; Toronto was the second city in the world to do so.


The Education of Man, by Friedrich Froebel translated into English by Josephine Jarvis with an introduction by Elizabeth Peabody

1892 London

The Froebel Educational Institute was founded in London in 1892 to train teachers in accordance with the ideas of Friedrich Froebel. In 1921 it moved to its present location in Roehampton, a delightful Georgian building, Grove House, which is surrounded by both formal and wild gardens and a lake.

Froebel College is now one of the four constituent colleges of Roehampton University and provides one of the most beautiful educational settings in the country.

Froebel respected children as individuals with rights and responsibilities according to their ages and abilities, and his philosophy has profoundly affected educational policy and practice around the world. The unique Froebel Archive for Childhood Studies is an archive covering the history of early childhood provision and containing a wealth of material by and about early educational pioneers such as Johann Pestalozzi, Maria Montessori and Susan Isaacs as well as Friedrich Froebel himself.

1892 Saratoga Springs, New York

Formation of International Kindergarten Union. In 1931 it merged with the National Council for Primary Education (established in 1916), and formed the Association for Childhood Education. The Association added "International" to its name in 1946 as an indication of its concern for children throughout the world. ACEI publishes a variety of materials, including books, pamphlets, bibliographies of children's literature, the ACEI Exchange monthly, Childhood Education five times a year, and the Journal of Research in Childhood Education biennially. ACEI is the oldest professional association of its type in the United States. The ACEI Book Collection includes works of German educator Friedrich Froebel. The Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) is an organization of teachers, parents, and other adults interested in promoting good educational practices for children from infancy through adolescence. Description of the holdings of the ACEI Archives


The Oberlin Kindergarten Training School (OKTS) was founded at Oberlin, Ohio for the purpose of instructing young women to teach kindergarten according to the methods of German educator Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852). The Oberlin Kindergarten Association, a group of 13 women, developed plans for the school, drew up a constitution, hired the first teacher, and organized several free kindergartens in Oberlin Village where OKTS students could fulfill practice teaching requirements.


200 kindergartens in Japan


A Short History of Education published with an interesting section on Froebel and the Gifts


There were seventy two kindergartens in Vienna.


The state of Prussia acknowledged the value of the kindergarten by establishing a statewide qualifying examination for kindergarten teachers


kindergartens were included in public schools in most parts of the United States.


Walter Gropius of the Bauhaus commissioned to design "a national monument for the greatest friend of children and educator of mankind". Friedrich Froebelhaus was planned for Bad Liebenstein to mark the 75 anniversary of the death of Froebel, 21 June 1852. Although never built, many of the ideas for the project were included in the new buildings at Dessau for the Bauhaus


German stamp with picture of Friedrich Froebel.


National Froebel Foundation closed its London office and deposited historical material in The Froebel Archive for Childhood Studies

1974 - 75

Restoration of Dessau Bauhaus, which have since 1996, been listed by UNESCO as sites of world-wide cultural importance. Now the Bauhaus Complex houses the Dessau Bauhaus Foundation and old parts of the building are used by the Anhalt Technical College. Today the cultural inheritance of the Bauhaus is preserved and carried forward by the Dessau Bauhaus Foundation which also devotes itself to the design of today's living environment. This work is divided into the workshop, the collection and the academy. The stage is again used for cultural events and exhibitionsmay be visited.


A new book about Froebel, Inventing Kindergarten by Norman Brosterman. Publisher: Harry N. Abrams; (February 1, 1997) ISBN: 0810935260

Synopsis: Invented in the 1830s by German educator Friedrich Froebel, kindergarten was designed to teach young children about art, design, mathematics, and natural history. Inventing Kindergarten uses extraordinary visual materials to reconstruct this successful system, which grew to become a familiar institution throughout the world by the end of the 19th century. 130 illustrations, 55 in color.

Froebel Societies in Japan, Korea, Thailand, Singapore and Taiwan.


Froebel Ireland Society (FIS) launched in April 2002, to celebrate Friedrich Froebel's birthday. Fis is the Irish word for vision so this a most apt title for this new initiative.

150 anniversary

The International Froebel Society was formed at a conference in Dresden in October 2002. The active central group includes people mainly from Germany, England, the USA and Ireland who have an academic, professional or practitioner interest in the educational principles and practices promoted by Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852).


International Froebel Society conference at the University of Surrey, Roehampton, UK entitled, Froebel in the Twenty First Century: challenges and uncertainties Thursday 1 July to Saturday 3 July 2004. The programme of speakers and presentations is available as a pdf file 340KB

New Thuringian Froebel Association fourth Froebel Symposium in Keilhau on 4 November 2004. Educational practitioners and scientists worked together in different problem solving work groups aiming at solutions that encompass the improvement of educational work in a Froebel institution. Details in German are available online


International Froebel Society conference at Froebel College, Dublin, Ireland entitled, Froebel From Play to Work: Taking Froebel Forward Dublin, 29 June to 1 July 2006. The programme of speakers and presentations is available as a pdf file 147KB


On January 28th 2008 two major Froebel archives were for the first time brought together in the remodelled Archives and Special Collections floor of the Roehampton University Library in London. The The Froebel Archive for Childhood Studies and The National Froebel Foundation Archive together provide a unique and accessible resource for students and researchers into the history of the Froebel movement in the UK.

International Froebel Society conference at Wheelock College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA entitled, Learning to Play - Playing to Learn 9 to 11 July, 2008.

Inventing Kindergarten

Inventing Kindergarten uses extraordinary visual materials to reconstruct this successful system, to teach young children about art, design, mathematics, and nature read more

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